Policies and markets

French Ministry in charge of Ecology and I4CE. Key Figures on Climate France and Worldwide 2016.

Key figures on climate change, emissions of greenhouse gases, France, Europe, World, with a reminder of the main international policies. Page 34: real estate assets greenhouse gas emissions would have been stable in France between 1990 and 2013. They declined slightly on average in the EU between 1990 and 2012.

Novethic Barometer 2014. Environmental commitments in the French listed real estate sector.

The environmental practices of the top 20 French listed property companies, particularly in terms of quantified objectives and monitoring the achievement of these objectives. Six companies stand out among the 20: GECINA, UNIBAIL-RODAMCO, KLEPIERRE, ALTAREA COGEDIM, FONCIERE DES REGIONS, SOCIETE FONCIERE LYONNAISE.

International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook 2013. October 2013.

Some learnings, among others : As the source of two-thirds of global greenhouse-gas emissions, the energy sector will be pivotal in determining whether or not climate change goals are achieved. A renewed focus on energy efficiency is taking hold and is set to deliver benefits that extend well beyond improvements in competitiveness. The Middle East, the only large source of low-cost oil, remains at the centre of the longer-term oil outlook. Renewables account for nearly half of the increase in global power generation to 2035, with variable sources – wind and solar photovoltaics – making up 45% of the expansion in renewables.

 Carbone Disclosure Project. Seven Climate Change from the Cities in Europe. 2012.

Interesting practical lessons learned from the experience of 22 European cities fighting against climate change.


BPIE. Europe s buildings under the microscope. 2011

The Buildings Performance Institute Europe analysed the European real estate portfolio, country per country, and elaborated several refurbishment 2050 scenarios. The two stage refurbishment scenario between now and 2050 is the most cost-efficient.


European Union. Implementing the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive. Featuring Country Reports 2010. 2011.

European Concerted Action Energy Performance of Buildings Report. Comparative analysis about certificates, inspections, training, procedures and information campaigns, and report for each Member State.


GRESB. Global Real Estate Sustainability Benchmarch Research Report 2011. 2011.

International benchmark about sustainability of 340 real estate companies, managing 928 billion USD of assets. 30% of the notation are linked to the policy, 70% to measurement of environmental results. 65 companies are classified in a Green Stars group.


World Energy Council. Energy and Urban Innovation. September 2010.

This World Energy Council report highlighted, through a global approach, the huge challenge of energy in cities . Urban policies are a mix of politics, technics, institutions and funding. Several case studies were analysed.


European Commission. A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbone economy in 2050. March 2011.

According to this Communication by European Commission, the 27 Members States should in average decrease their greenhouse gases emissions by 80 % between 1990 and 2050, that is a factor 5. Since sectors such as agriculture and transportation can hardly exceed factor 2, real estate is expected to reach factor 10!


Carassus J. Are Green Office Buildings keeping their promises? CSTB-CERTIVEA. March 2011.

This study, made for French Research Institute CSTB and Certifier CERTIVEA answered five questions: 1/ What is the actual performance of certified office buildings? 2/ Is there a trend towards measuring actual performance? 3/ What link is there between performance and real estate value? 4/ What is the advantage of HQE® IN USE certification? 5/ What transformations in Construction and Property Industry are necessary for management based on actual performance?


The Grenelle Building Plan. Climate Change in the Field of Construction in France. March 2010.

A presentation of the French National Sustainable Buildings Action Plan, made in EcoBuild in London in March 2010.


Nelson Andrew J., Rakau Oliver, Dörrenberg Philipp.Green Buildings, a niche becomes maintream. Deutsche Bank Research. Avril 2010.

Deutsche Bank Research analysed how “green” buildings, from a market niche, are becoming a mainstream market segment. Dissemination of “green” labels is studied.


European Directive 2010/31/EU of 19 May 2010 on the Energy Performance of Buildings.

Directive 2010/31/EU of 19 May 2010 on the Energy Performance of Buildings recasts Directive 2002/91/CE of 16 December 2002. It specifies a very ambitious objective for new construction (zero energy in 2020) and defines elements of an action plan for existing buildings (reinforced and controlled energy certificates, energy performance stated in the advertisements in commercial media and displayed in public buildings, minimum energy requirements for major renovations, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning inspections…). Actually Directive specifies the contents of close future regulations of the 27 countries members of European Union.


Kok N et alii. Environmental Performance, A Global Perdpective on Commercial Real Estate.Maastricht University. 2010.

A global survey on environmemtal performance of 200 real estate companies. Australian real estate industry is in advance in comparison to Europe and North America. A minority get an environmental policy and practical implementation through indicators.


N.Larsson. Comparison of 7 environmental labels. SB Alliance. 2009.

Comparison made by N.Larsson (iiSBE) for SB Alliance between BREEAM (UK), HQE (France), DGNB (Germany), AQUA (Brazil), SBC Uffici (Italy), PromisE (Poland) and LEnSE (European Project)labels.


WBCSD. Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Transforming the Market. Report n°2. August 2009

The WBCSD Energy Efficiency in Buildings Project 2nd report analysed the issue through subsector approach (single houses, offices, retail). 6 success factors are underlined: mobilization, codes, price signals, integrative approach, technologies and workforce capacity.


WBCSD. Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Facts and Trends. Report n°1. July 2008.

The Energy Efficiency in Buildings project is an interesting business oriented project monitored by World Business Council for Sustainable Development. It gathers 14 multinational firms supervised by Lafarge and United Technologies Corporation. Report n°1 highlighted 4 key elements: regulations, holistic building approach, finance and behavior.


UNEP-FI/SBCI’s Financial and Sustainability Metrics Report. 2009.

An interesting report, made by the BRE and the CSTB, including a comparison between six labels: the British BREEAM, the Japanese CASBEE, the Australian GREEN STAR, the French HQE, the American LEED and Italian ITACA.


IPD Environment Code. Measuring the Environmental Performance of Buildings. February 2008.

The good practice framework for measuring building-related environmental impacts proposed by Investment Property Database Ltd.


UNEP. Assessment of Policy Instruments for Reducing Green House Gaz Emissions from Buildings. 2007.

A study by the Central European University in Budapest for UNEP about the impact and the cost-efficiency of the political instruments. According to this analysis, the best instruments are energy efficiency obligations and quotas, tax exemptions, utilities demand-size management programs and appliance standards.


Cushman & Wakefield. A behavioral change. August 2008.

This study made by Cushman & Wakefield analysed the behavioral change of investors, landlords and tenants towards “green” buildings, especially in the commercial sector.


ADEME. Activities related to Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, Markets, Employment and Energy Stake. 2006-2007 Situation 2012 Perspecitves. July 2008.

An interesting study of the evolution of the renewable energy industry in France. Promising future … if the households accept to finance it!

Policies and markets